Using data to inform product decisions

A few months ago, I delivered a talk to an audience of product managers about the importance of having a data informed approach (see Fig. 1 below). As a product person, using data optimally to help make product decisions is critical. It’s something that I try to work on every day. I’m constantly learning about things such as the best combination of quantitative and qualitative, measuring the right things and using data as an integral part of the product development process.

This is a quick summary of the key things that I talked about in my talk in May of this year:

  1. Why do we need data? – I’m always keen to stress that as a product manager I don’t have all the answers. Product managers aren’t the holy grail and I believe it would be silly to pretend otherwise. I’m never afraid to say that I don’t know when people ask me which product idea we should go for or how people will use our product. Instead, I’ve learned to use data to draft and test assumptions which can help to inform product decisions (see Fig. 2 below).
  2. What can quantitative data tell us? – Quantitative data can really help to get stats on how people actually use a product and measure whether our product improvements or new features have the desired impact. I’ve learned a lot from the book Lean Analytics in which its authors, Alistair Croll and Benjamin Yoskovitz, expand on when and how to best use quantitative data.
  3. What can qualitative data tell us? - Qualitative data can be very valuable if you want to find out about the “why” behind quantitative data and to get a better insight into what users think and feel. Also, in cases where you don’t have much quantitative data at your disposal, qualitative data can help you to get some quick input into a product idea or prototype.
  4. Data driven approach – There are quite a number of game companies such as Zynga and Wooga that apply a data driven approach to product development. This typically means that a company will pick a single or a set of key metrics to concentrate on (see Fig. 3 below). With a purely data driven approach, its data that determine the fait of a product; based on data outcomes businesses can optimise continuously for the biggest impact on their key metric.
  5. Data informed approach – A few years ago, I came across an inspiring talk by Adam Mosseri, Director of Product at Facebook, who introduced the term “data informed” product development. The main rationale for this data informed approach is that, in reality, data is only one of the factors to consider when making product decisions. I make the point that typically, data is most likely to play a role alongside other decision-making factors such as strategic considerations, user experience, intuition, resources, regulation and competition (see Fig. 4 below). This doesn’t diminish the critical nature of data, but it does into take account a reality where other factors need considering when making product decisions.
  6. Where and why to use data to help inform product decisions – Also, there are a number of cases where a purely data driven approach falls short. For example, when there’s a strategic decision to be made or when you’re assessing a new product idea (see Fig. 5 below), looking at data in isolation may be insufficient. In my talk, I also gave some examples of how and why I use data at set points of the product lifecycle to help inform decision making (see Fig. 6 below).

Main learning point: I’m looking forward to a book by Rochelle King and Sean Power about data-informed design, hoping to learn more about how and when one can use data to inform product design decisions. I feel like I’ve already learned a lot from people like Adam Mosseri, Alistair Croll and Benjamin Yoskovitz and the way in which they use data as a key factor in making product decisions. Ultimately, I believe that using data continuously – in whichever way or form – is the best way to figure out how to best utilise it.

Fig. 1 – My presentation “Use data to inform product decisions” at ProductTank Hamburg on 16 May 2014 

Fig. 2 – Why do we need data?

  • To learn about products and users
  • To measure success
  • To choose between options
  • To understand user interaction
  • To decide on our products

Fig. 3 – Key components of a data driven approach

  • Focus on the “One Metric That Matters”
  • Build hypothesis around key KPI
  • A/B or multivariate test continuously
  • Optimise your product based on data
  • Are we making a noticeable difference?

Fig. 4 – Factors that can play a role in a product decision-making process (this is by no means an exhaustive list!)

  • Data
  • Strategy
  • Intuition
  • Competition
  • Regulation
  • Business
  • Brand
  • Time
  • Technology

Fig. 5 – Reasons a data informed approach might be better suited to your decision-making process

  • Data is one of the factors to consider
  • Focus on the questions that you want answered
  • You can’t replace intuition or creative ideas with data
  • Assess impact on relevant areas

Fig. 6 – Examples of how I use to data to inform product decisions

What do we want to do?

Assumptions, hypotheses, assessments and prototypes

How should it work?

User testing, user stories, A/B testing and prototypes

How is it working?

Product retrospectives, tracking and goal-oriented planning

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Posted by on August 18, 2014 in Data, Measuring


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A sneak preview of the Avegant Glyph

Even though it has yet to launch, I’m very intrigued by the design and promise of the Avegant Glyph. The “Glyph” is a new headset (see Fig. 1), set to launch in early 2015, which integrates Avegant’s core “virtual retina display” technology into a headset. Even though the design of the Avegant Glyph looks similar to the Oculus Rift, there are some specific features that make the Glyph stand out as a very different and interesting product:

  1. Real world experiences – Whereas the Oculus Rift lets users experience a virtual world, the Avegant Glyph concentrates more on the here and now. As Grant Martin, Avegant’s Head of Marketing and Product Development, explained to TechCrunch “the idea isn’t really to compete with Virtual Reality solutions, but rather to give people an option for a better screen-based entertainment experience wherever they happen to be”. The Glyph is intended as a mobile ear and eye headset, which people can use to watch films or to play games. It does display 3D content and has Bluetooth head-tracking technology which means that it could potentially be used for virtual type applications in the future.
  2. It’s all about the screen display – Even though I haven’t yet had a chance to play with the Glyph, I can imagine that its underlying retina display technology (see Fig. 2) will provide a whole new visual experience to users. The promise of this technology is “to transmit vivid, life-like images directly to the eye”. The optics which are part of Avegant’s technology focus the light rays directly on the user’s retina. It thus produces an perception of an image which is crystal clear, vivid and devoid of any pixel.
  3. Peripheral vision – The Glyph is designed to not completely block out the world around you and leave (some of) your peripheral vision intact. I’m keen, however, to see how much of my peripheral vision will be left intact once I put the visor down on a Glyph.

Main learning point: I can well imagine that the Avegant Glyph will be appealing to a whole new audience of users. Whereas the Oculus Rift is poised to attract an audience of gamers and people keen on virtual reality, the Glyph has the potential to reach out to more ‘everyday’ users who simply want a better visual experience than what they currently get on their smartphones or tablets.

It’s not that you’ll be able to easily blend into the crowd with your Glyph, but its main uses cases are likely to make it a lot more accessible and appealing to a wider audience. With an expected price point of around $500 it will be interesting to see what the uptake will be like, but I’d definitely love to get my hands on a Glyph when it comes out next year!

Fig. 1 – Avegant’s CEO Ed Tang and the Avegant Glyph – Taken from:


Fig. 2 – Outline of Avegant’s “Virtual Retinal Display” technology as used in the Glyph – Taken from:


Fig. 3 – Avegant Glyph Kickstarter video – Taken from:


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Posted by on August 8, 2014 in Mobile, Online Trends, Technology


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App review: Circa

The other day, I was looking at news apps to subscribe to and one of the apps that I discovered was Circa. I installed the iOS version of the app on my device and had a play with it. As always, I applied the product critique template by Julie Zhuo as I was testing the Circa app:

  1. How did this app come to my attention? - I was looking for news apps which would provide me with an easy-to-use and customisable news feed. In my search, I came across an article on The Next Web which was titled 10 must-have iPhone apps for keeping on top of the news, which mentioned Circa as one of its ten apps to check out.
  2. My quick summary of the app (before using it) - Circa provides a constant news stream which I can filter based on my specific interests. I expect Circa to send push notifications with relevant news updates.
  3. Getting started, what’s the sign-up process like? - I like that the Circa app gives me the option to “sign up later” as I prefer to sign up for accounts at a later stage. This gives me a chance to familiarise myself with the app first. The popup explaining notifications is also easy to understand; explaining both the procedure (“tap OK when prompted”) and the benefits (“You’ll receive breaking news, followed story updates, etc.”) (see Fig. 1 below).
  4. How does the app explain itself in the first minute? - When I click on the bookmark icon on an article in the “Arts & Entertainment” section, the app explains that I can follow story lines, getting push notifications as a story develops (see Fig. 2 below). The one thing that didn’t become immediately clear from the this tooltip was whether I need to be signed into Circa to be able to follow or to share a story. When I do go into a top story, it’s apparent – through the top navigation in the app – what I need to do if I wish to follow or to share a news story respectively. Once I’ve clicked the “follow” button, the button’s state changes immediately to “following” (see Fig. 3 below).
  5. How easy to use was the app? - Very straightforward. On iOS at least, the main actions are limited, simple and well presented: read, share and follow news stories. I liked how comments related to a story get highlighted – the background colour changes from grey to white – when you scroll down a story. This is a welcome feature given that there’s quite a lot of content on each article page.
  6. How did I feel while exploring the app? - Because of it’s simple navigation structure, I found the Circa app easy to navigate. The sections which feature different articles are self-explanatory and well sign-posted. However, I missed a profile or a “For You” section which contains all the stories that I follow across the different sections. It would be nice if I could see in my section which stories I follow across the ‘genres’ that I’m interested in (e.g. technology and sports) and perhaps get some personalised recommendations based on my interests. Not only will help me to understand where follow-up stories to my original ‘follows’ come from, it will also provide me with a nice ‘discovery path’. A personalised section can help me to find slightly older articles and their related stories to follows, which can be helpful particularly if I wish to share a slightly older article (and I can’t remember what it was).
  7. Did the app deliver on my expectations? – The Circa app definitely delivers on its main strap line: “Save Time. Stay Informed”. I find it easy to follow news stories and with Circa’s push notifications, I can dip in and out of stories as they developed.
  8. How long did I spend using the app? - So far, I’ve used the Circa app between 2-4 hours over the past month, reading and following stories.
  9. How does this app compare to similar apps? – There are a lot of news app out there and I see apps such as Flipboard, Daily Mail Online, Pocket, Zite, Facebook Paper and LinkedIn Pulse as direct competitors which offer a user proposition similar to Circa. Circa probably has the cleanest and most intuitive design out of all of them, closely followed by Flipboard. However, I feel that Flipboard gives me more reasons to keep coming back to the app; more opportunities for content discovery and better geared towards ‘collecting’ stories.

Main learning point: Circa is a simple, easy to use news app. It’s one of those “single purpose” apps which successfully delivers on its core proposition. However, I personally would like to see the app improve on its content discovery elements, encouraging users more to explore new content and to see which stories other people are following.

Fig. 1 – Screenshot of Circa’s push notifications pop-up screen

Circa Notifications


Fig. 2 – Screenshot of Circa’s tooltip regarding following stories

Circa Follow tooltip

Fig. 3 – Screenshot of an article in the Circa feed which I’ve just started following

Circa Article Follow


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Gamification and the MDA framework

A few months ago I wrote about some of the principles that underpin game design and I now would like to have a closer look at the specific elements that help to form games and game mechanics. In his online lectures on gamification, Kevin Werbach – an Associate Professor of Legal Studies and Business Ethics at Wharton School – talked about the interplay between:

  • Experiences - What the player feels.
  • Games - A set of rules around which a game is played.
  • Elements – The ‘bits and pieces’ that make up a game.

Kevin then went on to talk about the MDA framework as created by Robert Hunicke, Marc LeBlanc and Robert Zubek in 2001. The MDA framework formalises game consumption by breaking games into their distinct elements: rules, system and “fun”. These elements translate into the following design counterparts which comprise the MDA framework: Mechanics, Dynamics and Aesthetics (see Fig. 1 below). What do these different components of the MDA framework entail?

  1. Mechanics – In his lecture, Kevin Werbach described game mechanics as “the processes that drive actions forward”. He subsequently compared mechanics to “verbs” which help people to play games (see Fig. 2). In their academic article, Robert Hunicket et al. defined game mechanics as “the particular components of the game, at the level of data representation and algorithms”.
  2. Dynamics – After comparing game mechanics to “verbs”, Kevin likened game dynamics to “grammar”. These are “big picture aspects” which combine game mechanics (“verbs”) and game components (“nouns”). A game dynamic can be defined as a pattern of loops that turns them into a large sequence of play. Tadhg Kelly has written a great blog post where he delves deeper into game dynamics (see Fig. 3) and I also came across an interesting TED Talk by Seth Priebatsch (see Fig. 4) on the same subject. On the topic of “game components”, Kevin compared these to “nouns” which put together help to form the flow of a game. These are specific instantiations of game mechanics and dynamics (see Fig. 5).
  3. Aesthetics – In the MDA framework, the point about “game aesthetics” is all about making games ‘fun’. One of the guys behind the MDA framework, Marc LeBlanc, came up with 8 kinds of fun as a more specific vocabulary to describe game aesthetics (see Fig. 6). In the MDA framework, game aesthetics are described as “the desirable emotional responses evoked in the player, when she interacts with the game system”.

Main learning point: the MDA framework is great practical tool which helps to think about games and gamification in a more structured kind of way. We all know how easy it can be to slap a leader board or points system into a game or an application but the MDA framework really forces us to think about our rationale for considering some of these game elements.

Fig. 1 – The MDA framework by Robert Hunicke, Marc LeBlanc and Robert Zubek (2001) – Taken from:


Fig. 2 – Sample list of game mechanics as provided by Kevin Werbach as part of Coursera’s online Gamification course

  • Challenges
  • Chance
  • Competition
  • Cooperation
  • Feedback
  • Resource acquisition
  • Rewards
  • Transactions
  • Turns
  • Win states

Fig. 3 – “Game Dynamics and Loops” by Tadhg Kelly – Taken from:

  • Linear vs player driven dynamics – A good example of a linear game dynamic is Space Invaders where the game dynamic is the continuing increase of challenge as the enemies proceed down the screen and get faster. With player driven game dynamics like in Animal Crossing the loop is the receipt of a task and the actions to complete that task, but the dynamic is the further branching of more tasks across days or weeks.
  • Primary vs secondary dynamics – There are plenty of games out there which are based upon a single, powerful game dynamic. A good example of a game with such a strong primary dynamic is World of Goo where the game is all about creating structures with balls of goo. In contrast, games such as Wii Sports contain lots of mini-games, each with their own dynamic.

Fig. 4 – Seth Priebatsch “Building the game layer on top of the world” – TED Talk on 20 August 2010

Fig. 5 – Sample list of game components as provided by Kevin Werbach as part of Coursera’s online Gamification course

  • Achievements
  • Avatars
  • Badges
  • Boss fights
  • Collections
  • Combat
  • Content unlocking
  • Leaderboards
  • Gifting
  • Levels
  • Points
  • Quests
  • Social graph
  • Teams
  • Virtual goods

Fig. 6 – Sample game aesthetics by Robert Hunicke, Marc LeBlanc and Robert Zubek (2001)  – Taken from:

  • Sensation – Game as sense-pleasure
  • Fantasy – Game as make-believe
  • Narrative – Game as drama
  • Challenge – Game as obstacle course
  • Fellowship – Game as social framework
  • Discovery – Game as uncharted territory
  • Expression – Game as self-discovery
  • Submission – Game as pastime

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Posted by on July 16, 2014 in Gamification


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App review: Zoopla

I always like discovering new apps, playing with them and seeing what works for me and what doesn’t. I recently looked at some apps in the property finder’ space. Julie Zhuo has recently written up a good way to do a “product critique” which template I’ll apply to my app reviews. I recently used the iOS app from Zoopla, a UK based property site, and applied Julie’s product critique template:

  1. How did this app come to my attention? - I looked at the Zoopla site a few years ago, but hadn’t interacted with the site (or the app) since. I’d heard about significant improvements to both the user interface and functionality of the app, reason why I was keen to have a play with the app.
  2. My quick summary of the app (before using it) - Zoopla’s app enables users to find properties to buy or rent in their local areas.
  3. Getting started, what’s the sign-up process like? - Registering as a new Zoopla user was pretty straightforward; only an email address and a password were required for me to register. I noticed that I didn’t need to be logged in to do actions such as messaging the estate agent about a property that I was interested in. This clearly makes it easier for me to quickly enquire about a property.
  4. How does app explain itself in the first minute? - On the app’s opening screen, it clearly says “Zoopla” followed by the “Smarter property search” strap line. Most of he options on the opening menu – ranging from “For sale” to “MyZoopla” – are pretty self-explanatory (see Fig. 1 below). I felt that some of the navigation options could have benefited from some additional explanation. For example, “Current values” and “MyZoopla” could have done with explanatory hover over comment to explain their function and value to users.
  5. How easy to use was the app? - I found it very easy to use the app. When I played with the app, I particularly concentrated on an important use case: finding a property to buy (see Fig. 2 below). The app lets users filter their searches by a number of factors such as price and number of bedrooms (see Fig. 3 below). When you get the results, the app enables both hiding and sorting of the results. Hiding can be particularly helpful if one doesn’t want the same search results to come up time and time again. By default, the search results are sorted by ‘Most recent’ but users can sort by e.g. ‘lowest price’ or by ‘most popular’.
  6. How did I feel while exploring the app? - Zoopla’s app is easy to explore; the navigational items are clearly signposted and the split menu bar meant that I could easily find my way around in the app.
  7. Did the app deliver on my expectations? – Yes, the app was simple and easy to use. It delivered on the main use cases that I expected the app to cover: finding properties, either to buy or to rent. However, the one bit of functionality and information that I missed from the app was the ability for users to sell their properties or put them up for rent through the app. It made me wonder whether this could be because Zoopla’s business model is based around estate agents who submit properties to be listed in the app.  
  8. How long did I spend using the app? - I’d say I spent about 15 minutes in total playing with the app.
  9. How does this app compare to similar apps?Lovely Rentals in the US and Rightmove in the UK are apps similar to Zoopla. I personally find the user interface of the Rightmove app a lot less appealing in comparison; it gives me the feeling that I have to work hard to get the property results that I’m looking for. A good example is the “Sale Filters” screen in the Rightmove app (see Fig. 4 below). At a first glance, I struggle to comprehend what the “advanced” option will do for me or what “Include Sold STC” means. In contrast, I immediately sensed that the Zoopla was easy-to-use and intuitive.

Main learning point: Zoopla’s property app is easy to use and intuitive. It’s a no-frills app which does exactly what you expect it to do. I like the way the app gives it users the ability to easily filter and sort search results. All around, a good and easy to use app!

Fig. 1 – Screenshot of the opening screen of the Zoopla app

zoopla-opening screen

Fig. 2 – Screenshot of property listings on the Zoopla app


Fig. 3 – Screenshot of search options when looking to buy property through the Zoopla app

Zoopla searches

Fig. 4 – Screenshot of the “Sale Filters” screen in the Rightmove app




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Book review: “Hooked: how to build habit-forming products”

What makes a product or service really stick in your mind? Do you have an app on your phone that you always turn to whenever you’re bored? If you’ve got a problem to solve, is there a specific product or service you tend to use to look for a solution? American journalist and lecturer Nir Eyal has written a book about how to best create ‘habit-forming’ products, creating ways for users to get ‘hooked’. In “Hooked: how to build habit-forming products” Nir focuses on those elements that make up the “Hook Model” and which help to create products which become an integral part of our lives.

What I liked best about reading “Hooked” are the insights that it provides around the user journey that product people can design and optimise for; not just designing for a one-off experience but creating a lasting engagement with the user. Nir illustrates this form of lasting engagement through the so-called “Habit Zone” which plots ‘frequency’ against ‘perceived utility’ (see Fig. 1 below). Let’s start this review by looking at the four elements of the Hook Model: Trigger, Action, Variable Reward and Investment (also see Fig. 2 below):

  1. Trigger - Nir describes a trigger as “the actuator of behaviour – the spark plug in the engine.” There are two forms of triggers: external and internal triggers. Habit-forming products use external triggers such as as an email or a website link to alert users. These are all external alerts. The point that Nir makes is that when users start to automatically cue their next behaviour, the new habit becomes part of their everyday routine. In other words: as soon as users no longer need an external alert, a habit – powered internally – has been formed.
  2. Action – A trigger is pretty useless if it isn’t followed by an action. Nir explains that “to initiate action, doing must be easier than thinking” and refers to the “Fogg Behaviour Model” in this respect (see Fig. 4 below). This model shows that behaviour will occur when motivation, ability, and a trigger occur at same time and in sufficient measures. I found it particularly interesting to read about ‘ability’ and BJ Fogg’s six “elements of simplicity”, which represent the factors that influence the difficulty of a specific action (see Fig. 5 below). This focus on making actions as easy as possible is one of the key reasons why companies are moving towards ‘single purpose’ apps and are constantly looking to reduce the number of steps that users have to go through (I wrote about single purpose apps a few weeks ago). Nir also asks the question around where to start: motivation or ability? His answer is very clear: always start with ability. Nir’s point here is that “for most companies building technology solutions, the greatest return on investment will generally come from increasing a product’s ease-of-use.”
  3. Variable Reward – The word that intrigued me most with regard to this third element of the Hook model was “variable”. In the book, Nir explains that when users are (pleasantly) surprised by a new reward, this is likely to have an impact on their usage of the product or service. Three different types of variable rewards are further explained in the book: the “Tribe”, the “Hunt” and the “Self” (see Fig. 6 below). Habit-forming products tend to use one or more of these variable reward types in order to keep users excited and engaged.
  4. Investment – The fourth and final element of the Hook model is “investment” This is about getting users to invest, to put effort into a product. Nir talks about a psychological phenomenon known as the “escalation of commitment” whereby people are driven to keep on investing into a product or service. It’s a phenomenon often encountered in video games, where players go through countless levels of a game. Twitch is a great example of a successful community built around some of these characteristics. The key point here is that the more users invest time and effort into a product or service, the more they value it. Nir talks about “storing value” in this regard; the stored value users put into the product increases the likelihood they will use it again in the future and comes in a variety of forms (see Fig. 7 below).

In Chapter 6 of the book, Nir provides a nice overview of the five fundamental questions for building fundamental hooks (see Fig. 8 below). He goes on to explain that the Hook Model is fundamentally about changing people’s behaviours; but the power to build persuasive products should be used with caution. He acknowledges that the Hook Model and subsequent persuasive products can be abused by product people and introduces the “Manipulation Matrix” in this regard (see Fig. 9 below).

There were a few more key things which I took away from reading “Hooked: how to build habit forming products”:

  1. Avoid manipulation – As a product person, the role of a “Facilitator” is the one that you want to play; creating a product that you would use and that you believe will make the user’s life better. In effect, you’re facilitating a healthy habit. I guess that’s exactly the main concern that I have with some product people and their application of some of the insights and examples in “Hooked”. I hear people talking about ‘tricks’ and ‘mechanisms’ and I worry sometimes that the underlying user need gets overlooked or downplayed. It’s one of the reasons why I believe that product people should always take the Internal Trigger as a key reference point when creating and evaluating a product or a service.
  2. Habit Testing – Inspired by the build-measure-learn approach of the “Lean Startup” movement, Nir introduces the continual process of “Habit Testing” which can help offer insights and actionable data to inform the design of habit-forming products. The practical steps that Nir outlines with regard to Habit Testing are very useful and can easily be integrated in one’s more standard user testing processes (see Fig. 10 below).

Main learning point: In “Hooked: how to build habit-forming products” Nir Eyal provides a very useful lens for anyone involved in product development. User habits are pivotal and the “Habit Zone” is where most products and services will want to be. The aspects of the Hook Model which I found most helpful are Trigger and Action as both got me to think more about what drives users and how to best translate this motivation into action. If you are interested in learning more about how user habits are formed and how products can tap into this, then “Hooked” is a must-read!


Fig. 1 – The Habit Zone by Nir Eyal (taken from: habit-zone2

Fig. 2 – The Hook Model by Nir Eyal (taken from: Hook Model

Fig. 3 – Types of external and internal triggers (taken from: “Hooked: how to create habit-forming products” by Nir Eyal, Chapter 2):

External triggers:

  1. Paid Triggers – Advertising, search engine marketing, and other paid channels are commonly used to get users’ attention and prompt them to act.
  2. Earned Triggers – Earned triggers are free in that they can not be bought directly, but they often require investment in the form of time spent on public and media relations.
  3. Relationship Triggers – One person telling others about a product or a service can be a highly effective external trigger for action.
  4. Owned Triggers – Owned triggers consume a piece of real-estate in the user’s environment. They consistently show up in daily life and it is ultimately up to the user to opt into allowing these triggers to appear. Owned triggers are only set after users sign up for an account, submit their email address, install an app, opt into newsletters, or otherwise indicate that they want to continue receiving communications.

Internal Triggers: 

  1. Emotional Triggers – Emotions, particularly negative ones, are powerful internal triggers and greatly influence our daily routines. Feelings of boredom, loneliness, frustration, confusion and indecisiveness often instigate a  slight pain or irritation and prompt an almost instantaneous and mindless action to quell the negative sensation. Positive emotions can also serve as internal triggers, and may even be triggered themselves by a need to satisfy something that is bothering us.


Fig. 4 – BJ Fogg’s Behaviour Model (taken from: Behavior Model

Fig. 5 – BJ Fogg’s six “elements of simplicity” (taken from: “Hooked: how to create habit-forming products” by Nir Eyal, Chapter 3)

  • Time – How long it takes to complete an action.
  • Money – The fiscal cost of taking an action.
  • Physical Effort – The amount of labour involved in taking the action.
  • Brain Cycles - The level of mental effort and focus required to take an action.
  • Social Deviance – How accepted the behaviour is by others.
  • Non-Routine – How much the action matches or disrupts existing routines.


Fig. 6 – Three Variable Reward Types (taken from: “Hooked: how to create habit-forming products” by Nir Eyal, Chapter 4)

  • Rewards of the Tribe – Rewards which are based on the way in which our brains are adapted to seek rewards that make us feel accepted, attractive, important, and included. Examples of such rewards can be found in sites such as Quora and Stack Overflow.
  • Rewards of the Hunt – This reward type is very much about the ‘chase'; the pleasure we can derive from the pursuit itself. A good example is Pinterest where users never know what they will find on the site. To keep users searching and scrolling, some of the pictures on Pinterest seem to be cut off. However, the idea is for these images to ‘tease’ the user and to offer them a glimpse of what’s ahead.
  • Rewards of the Self – This third and final variable reward type has to do with a more personal form of gratification. Nir mentions a good example in video games, where players seek to master the skills needed to pursue their quest. A good example can be found in Twitch which has built a great community around some of these characteristics.


Fig. 7 – Types of investment, storing value into products or services (taken from: “Hooked: how to create habit-forming products” by Nir Eyal, Chapter 5)

  • Content – Examples of sites where users store value by adding content are Spotify (where users create, store and share music playlists) and photo-sharing site Flickr. Similarly, users can store value through content in the form of “likes” or videos shared on Facebook.
  • Data – Users can store value in a product or service by adding data about themselves or their behaviours. Good examples are LinkedIn (where people store their CVs and keep details of their business contacts) and Tripit (where people create and store their travel itineraries).
  • Followers – Apart from the gratification that people can get from having a large number of followers on social media such as Twitter and Quora, Nir argues that the more followers one has, the more valuable the service becomes to the user as a result.
  • Reputation – Reputation as a form of stored value comes in all kinds of different shapes and sizes. Nir mentions online marketplaces such as eBay and Airbnb where people with negative scores are treated very differently from those with good reputations.
  • Skill – Investing time and effort into learning to use a product is a form of investment and stored value. Once a user has acquired a skill, the service becomes easier and moves users to the right on the ability Axis of the Fogg Behaviour Model (see Fig. 4 above). A good example is the well known graphics editing programme Adobe Photoshop which enables users to pick from a wide range of features, varying from basic to very advanced.


Fig. 8 – Five fundamental questions for building effective hooks (taken from: “Hooked: how to create habit-forming products” by Nir Eyal, Chapter 6)

  1. What do users really want? What pain is your product relieving? (Internal Trigger)
  2. What brings users to your service? (External Trigger)
  3. What is the simplest action users take in anticipation of reward, and how can you simplify your product to make this action easier? (Action)
  4. Are users fulfilled by the reward, yet left wanting more? (Variable Reward)
  5. What “bit of work” do users invest in your product? Does it load the next trigger and store value to improve the product with use? (Investment)


Fig. 9 – Manipulation Matrix (taken from:


Fig. 10 – Steps involved in Habit Testing (taken from: “Hooked: how to create habit-forming products” by Nir Eyal, Chapter 8 and

  • Step 1: Identify – Define what it means to be a devoted user. How often “should” one use your product?
  • Step 2: Codify – Codify the steps that your users took using your product to understand what hooked them. You’re looking for a “Habit Path”; a series of similar actions shared by your most loyal users.
  • Step 3: Modify – Armed with new insights, it’s time to revisit your product and identify ways to nudge new users down the same Habit Path as taken by devotees.

Screen Shot 2012-04-05 at 11.17.20 AM


Related links for further learning:







What to expect from iOS 8?

Last week, Apple spent a large part of its keynote at WWDC 2014 talking about iOS 8, its new operating system for its handheld devices. These are the main features that we can look forward to as part of iOS 8:

  1. Touch ID – Apple’s “Touch ID” fingerprint recognition system is currently only available on iPhone 5S but will now be integrated into iOS 8 and will become available on more Apple devices. Instead of having to remember lots of different passwords, with Touch ID users will now be able to complete transactions just using their fingerprints (see screenshot in Fig. 1 below). In addition, with iOS 8 there is a likelihood that users will be able to scan credit cards via an iPhone or iPad camera and automatically fill in their details as part of an online shopping transaction.
  2. Handoff – With Apple’s “Handoff”, users will be able to switch seamlessly between devices; one can start watching something on an iPhone and then continue watching on an iPad, without any overlap or lag (see Fig. 2 below). Another important aspect of Handoff is the inclusion of the Mac, Apple’s desktop, and the notion that the desktop operating system can now talk to an Apple mobile operating system without any friction. For example, it means that when you start working on a document on a desktop, you can easily resume working on the document on your mobile, without having to delve into different folders, etc.
  3. Interactive Notifications – iOS 8 will include new interactive notifications which will allow users to reply to text messages or accept calendar invites without leaving the app that they are in. These new interactive notifications can be invoked from their temporary banner that appears at the top, as well as on the lock screen (see Fig. 3 below).
  4. Health – At last week’s WWDC, Apple presented it’s new Health app and a developer focused Healthkit API. The Health app effectively aggregates all your health and fitness data, irrespective of the apps that you use to generate this data. Examples of popular fitness/health apps are Fitbit are FitStar and their data can be aggregated into a secure dashboard on your Apple smartphone or tablet (see Fig. 4 below). With the Healthkit API, developers can start integrating the data of health/fitness apps with Apple’s Health app.
  5. HomeKit – With the “Homekit”, Apple is taking a firm leaf out of Nest‘s book. Nest is all about creating a connected home and which home products are designed to learn from user behaviour (I wrote about Nest earlier in the year). The technology which underpins Apple’s HomeKit is very complex, but in essence it covers one or more ‘Homes’, with different ‘Rooms’ within the Home. For example, you can have a room called “Master Bathroom” in your Home and you can have two distinct actions which you can trigger through Siri, Apple’s voice command technology: (1) closing the bathroom door and (2) turning on/off the bathroom light.

Main learning point: Apple has introduced some interesting features as part of it’s new iOS 8 operating system for its handheld devices. Perhaps the least sexy one out off all these features, but the “Handoff” connectivity feature is a really critical one as it will enable users to seamlessly switch between Apple devices and desktop. If I were to go for ‘sexy’, then Apple’s forthcoming Health app is probably the most exciting, both from a user perspective and from a data aggregation perspective.

Fig. 1 – Screenshot of Touch ID integration into Mint app (taken from:


Fig. 2 – Apple’s Craig Federighi presents Apple Continuity for Mac OS at WWDC ’14 on 2 June ’14 (taken from: CNET News,

Fig. 3 – Screenshot of Apple’s Interactive Notifications (taken from:


Fig. 4 – Screenshot of the dashboard function of Apple’s Health app (taken from:


Related links for further learning:

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Posted by on June 11, 2014 in Apple, Data, Mobile, Technology


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