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Category Archives: Amazon

App review: Amazon Seller App

How do the likes of eBay, Amazon Handcraft, Notonthehighstreet, Rakuten and Etsy go about supporting the small businesses who sell products through their platforms? What are some of the typical data and customer insights that these sellers benefit from and why? Amazon recently launched its Seller App aiming to “help grow and manage your selling business on Amazon.” I had a quick look at the Amazon Seller App and these are my initial thoughts:

  1. How did the app come to my attention? – Since I’ve started working on online marketplaces I tend to keep an eye out for new technology and tools available to the sellers on these marketplaces.
  2. My quick summary of the app (before using it) – I expect a mobile app, which helps sellers to keep a close eye on their sales figures and manage their orders.
  3. How does the app explain itself in the first minute? – The first screen of the app asks me to select my marketplace (see Fig. 1 below). It doesn’t provide any further context but I presume that if you’re an active seller on Amazon you might not need any further info.
  4. Getting started, what’s the process like? – I’m not a seller on Amazon, but looking at some of the screenshots and the data provided, I can imagine that sellers will find it relatively easy to use the app (see Fig. 2 and 3 below). What I’m curious about though is the data syncing between devices, making sure your sales data is as ‘real-time’ as possible. I also couldn’t get a sense of whether (and how well) the Seller App integrates with Amazon’s Mobile Credit Card Reader.
  5. How does the app compare to similar apps?  The Amazon Seller App feels very similar to the Sell on Etsy app and SellerMobile. For example, the Etsy app enables sellers to manage their open orders and revisit completed ones on the go (see Fig. 4 below). The Etsy app also offers sellers the opportunity to check their Etsy shop and product views, but I’m not sure whether this analytics feature is included in Amazon’s Seller App.
  6. Did the app deliver on my expectations?  Yes, based on what I could tell from the screenshots and app description. The app looks the provide the key stats and insights that marketplace sellers tend to be interested in. What I could not tell from the screenshots is how the app facilitates sellers who sell on multiple marketplaces, for example in the UK and the US. I know this is a reality for lots of small businesses and it would be good to find out how the user interface of the Amazon Seller App accommodates for this use case.

Main learning point: The Amazon Seller App looks fit for purpose, providing sellers with key sales information that’s visual and easy to manage on the go. Analytics and multiple marketplaces are two areas where I’m not sure how (well) they are covered by this app. However, if you sell products through Amazon and want to keep a close eye on your orders and sales, then this app should give you the key information to help you manage your activities on Amazon’s marketplace.

Fig. 1 – Screenshot of opening screen on Amazon Seller App (iOS)

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Fig. 2 – Screenshots of Amazon Seller App (iOS) – Taken from: http://www.allmediatalks.com/amazon-in-launches-its-seller-app-in-india-amazon-online-selling/

Amazon Marketplace

Fig. 3 – Screenshot order detail view on Amazon Seller App (iOS) – Taken from: https://itunes.apple.com/us/app/amazon-seller/id794141485

Amazon product detail

 

Fig. 4 – Screenshot of the ‘Sell on Etsy’ App – Taken from: https://blog.etsy.com/news/2014/introducing-new-mobile-app-just-for-sellers/

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Related links for further learning:

  1. http://tamebay.com/2015/06/amazon-marketplaces-eu-release-seller-app.html
  2. http://techcrunch.com/2014/03/06/amazon-debuts-an-official-mobile-app-for-amazon-sellers/
  3. http://www.retailwire.com/discussion/18003/its-good-to-be-an-amazon-marketplace-seller
  4. http://www.fiercewireless.com/europe/story/mobile-app-helps-amazon-sellers-shift-2b-items-2014/2015-01-05
  5. http://www.allmediatalks.com/amazon-in-launches-its-seller-app-in-india-amazon-online-selling/
  6. http://www.wired.com/2014/08/amazon-mobile-credit-card-reader/
  7. http://techcrunch.com/2014/10/23/etsy-moves-further-into-the-offline-world-with-launch-of-card-reader-for-in-person-payments/
  8. https://blog.etsy.com/news/2014/introducing-new-mobile-app-just-for-sellers/
 

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The importance of digital product pages

In an online retail course which I did recently, its instructor Ian Jindal talked about the importance of retailers getting their product pages right, making sure these pages are relevant to the consumer. Even though consumers don’t think in terms of traditional sales funnels, and might use a variety of sources to come to a purchase decision, product pages clearly have a very important role to play within this decision-making process.

Ian stressed the opportunities that a product page can provide: (1) to sell in the moment, (2) to cross- or up-sell and (3) to start a conversation with the consumer. One of the main things that I learned is the importance of understanding customer needs and the category that a product fits into. When you’ve built up this understanding, you’ll be able to help the consumer understand the product, its features and its benefits. The way in which one presents a product can be broken down into these three key bits of information:

  • Expertise (product)
  • Support choice (customer)
  • How to buy (operations)

A good example is the website of Nothonthehighstreet, a UK-based site which sells products created by small, creative businesses. Their product details are well presented, acting as a good starting point for a conversation with the customer. Also, customer reviews of the product are integrated in a simple but effective ways as is the relevant delivery information (see Fig. 1 below).

Intrigued by what Nothonthehighstreet have done, I looked at some other good examples of well designed product pages:

  1. Cross-selling – Cross-selling is about offering a similar or complimentary product to the item that the customer is looking at. Amazon and IKEA are good at this, using their “Frequently Bought Together” and “You Might Also Be Interested In” functionality respectively. I’ve learned more about the value of cross- and up-selling through a great Leapfrogg blog post, and I’ve included some of the important value points in Fig. 2 below.
  2. Product imageryMade.com is a good example of compelling product imagery. Made.com is a furniture website which offers its potential customers with clear and detailed visuals of its products. A good example is the product page for the “Bramante” dining table (see Fig. 3 below). People interested in this product will be able to get a better idea about the size and extension of the table, purely from looking at the pictures on the product page.
  3. Product copy – It was interesting to learn more about what makes good product copy. On my aforementioned digital retail course, the instructor Ian Jindal talked a lot about Search Engine Optimisation (‘SEO’) and the importance of product copy reflecting customer search terms. Another key point is highlighting product features and benefits (see Fig. 4 below). It’s easy to get all technical or detailed when describing a product, at the risk of losing the customer in the process. Dyson are a good at keeping it simple; when describing their vacuum cleaners they use technical detail where necessary but prefer to keep it simple when describing product benefits (see Fig. 5 below).

Main learning point: It was good to learn more about the role of product pages and to understand how to get the most out of these pages. If anything, it made me realise about the amount of work and thinking that goes into creating good product descriptions and pages.

Fig. 1 – Screenshot of product details for a grapevine gift crate – Taken from: http://www.notonthehighstreet.com/thegluttonousgardener/product/mini-vineyard

NOTHS 1

 

NOTHS2

NOTHS3

Fig. 2 – The value and examples of cross-selling – Taken from: http://www.leapfrogg.co.uk/froggblog/2012/07/ten-great-examples-of-ecommerce-functionality/

Using a well-executed cross-selling strategy will likely result in:

  • Increased transactions as customers find what they want with greater ease
  • Increased average order values as they add additional items to their basket
  • Greater exposure of your product range
  • Greater exposure to higher margin products
  • Increased customer satisfaction as related products help complete their shopping process quickly

Good examples of cross-selling are IKEA and Amazon:

Screenshot of IKEA’s “You Might Also Be Interested In” and “Complimentary Products” functionality

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Screenshot of Amazon’s “Frequently Bought Together” functionality:

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Fig. 3 –  Screenshot of the “Bramante” dining table – Taken from: http://www.made.com/tables/bramante-square-extending-dining-table-white

Screen Shot 2014-12-16 at 08.07.17

Fig. 4 – Guidance from content practitioners on how to write good product copy – Taken from: https://econsultancy.com/blog/63911-what-makes-great-ecommerce-product-page-copy

  • Product names should reflect customer terms
  • Copy that reflects the company’s tone of voice and is consistent throughout all products
  • Positioning on the product page
  • Key features and benefits
  • Check for errors
  • Testing all content on the site
  • Write for your user base
  • Think about how much copy is needed
  • Differentiate your product copy

Fig. 5 – Screenshot of the Dyson DC50 – Taken from: http://www.dyson.co.uk/vacuum-cleaners/upright/dc50.aspx

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Related links for further learning: 

  1. http://blog.ometria.com/bid/334247/Top-Product-Pages-My-Analysis-of-5-Great-Examples
  2. https://econsultancy.com/blog/63911-what-makes-great-ecommerce-product-page-copy
  3. https://econsultancy.com/blog/63927-20-inspirational-examples-of-product-page-copy-2
  4. http://www.leapfrogg.co.uk/froggblog/2012/07/ten-great-examples-of-ecommerce-functionality/
  5. http://www.creativebloq.com/web-design/responsive-ecommerce-websites-12121456
  6. https://econsultancy.com/blog/65358-15-inspiring-examples-of-ecommerce-product-pages/
 
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Posted by on December 18, 2014 in Amazon, Design, Digital Content, eCommerce

 

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Learning more about omni-channel retail

I recently did an online retail course and one of the first things that our teacher Ian Jindal said was: “forget thinking about retail in terms of the classic ‘awareness to conversion’ funnel, consumers don’t think that way!”. He went on to explain that consumers nowadays come to a purchasing decision through a multitude of – online and offline – channels, and that they might well skip any customer journeys or experiences carefully designed by a brand or retailer.

As Agile Architect Jason Bloomberg explained in a recent Forbes article: “Omni-channel represents more than simply adding mobile and social media to the mix. It heralds an interconnectedness among touchpoints that from the perspective of the consumer, blurs the distinction among channels.”

It means that even if the traditional sales funnel with its classic four stages – awareness, consideration, intent and decision – still exists, its inputs are likely to come from a variety of online and offline sources. These sources are typically hard for marketeers to fully control or influence. I like how back in 2009, McKinsey described how consumers are shifting from a funnel to narrowing down their purchase options through more of a ‘loop’ (see Fig. 1 below).

These are some of the things that I learned about how to best cater for the changed ways in which consumers make purchasing decisions:

  1. Zero Moment of Truth – Google’s so-called Zero Moment of Truth is all about people making purchasing decisions at the “Zero Moment”; the precise moment when they have a need, intent or question they want answered online. These questions can be as diverse as “Which family car has got the most boot space” or “Which jeans do make my bottom look small?”. The point for brands is to be able to answer these questions at the right time and for the right customer and to be at the consumer’s front of mind when she looks for answers.
  2. Deliver on your promises – In our course, the instructor Ian Jindal stressed the importance of brands delivering on their promises to the consumer. For example, if a retailer promises to deliver within a certain time period, it can’t afford to fall short on this promise. Companies like Amazon and Ocado are all about delivery, so they have to make sure thy get this capability absolutely spot on. A recent MCA report mentions the growing need for omni-channel retailers to increase the number of choices of service offerings available to customers. This inevitably increases operational complexity, which means that back-end systems need to be deliver on the promises made at the ‘front-end’.
  3. The importance of in-store – Don’t think that because there’s mobile and online consumers have stopped caring about stores and their in-store experiences. People are likely to check online first before buying in store and vice versa. It seems that particularly for product categories such as furniture and fashion, bricks and mortar stores still have a significant role to play. A recent AT Kearney study among 3,200 UK and US consumers shows that about 40% of their shopping time is spent online and on mobile, leaving about 60% of shopping time spent in-store. It’s things like iBeacons, QR codes and in-store scanning that help retailers in linking the different channels that consumers interact with. A great example is John Lewis StyleMe, an in-store virtual mirror that lets consumers try on clothes from its online catalogue without people having to undress.

In tandem with having the aforementioned basic elements in place, it’s important to have a clear proposition and to implement this proposition consistently across all your channels. In the course, Ian Jindal talked about the following three perspectives to selling, and which  impact on the content and execution of one’s proposition:

  • Customer segment – Your proposition can be all about your customer; demonstrating customer needs, what makes them tick (and why), etc. A good example is House of Fraser who state that impact on customer satisfaction is a key driver for their development roadmap.
  • Product or service – You offer an excellent product or service, delivering the value for money that your (target) customers are looking for. For example, Aldi – who historically focused more on on price than product – has been growing its product assortment over the last few years to meet its customer needs.
  • Operational capability – Your proposition is all about your operational excellence. A good example of this are Amazon who clearly don’t have the most beautifully designed product pages but rely for a large part on their great service and delivery times.

I guess these are the main two things that I learned about having a retail proposition:

  1. Your proposition is always there – A proposition is something which, as a retailer, you don’t shout about all the time but which should underpin everything you do. As Ian Jindal put it: “proposition isn’t something you market, it’s something that you hear behind your back”. He mentioned Pret A Manger as a good example of a company that has a clear proposition and which is reflected in a lot of the things that it does, both in-store and in its communications (see Fig. 2 below).
  2. Build your proposition on at least 2 out of 3 elements – To build a successful and sustainable retail business you need to have at least two of the these three elements in place: customer segment, product or service and operational capability. John Lewis are a good example, with their focus on both product and operational capability (see Fig. 3 below).

Main learning point: Irrespective of the different channels that are relevant to a retailer and its customers; there are a number of key elements that need to be in place regardless. I believe that there are three key lenses which are applicable: customer segmentation, product or service and operational capability. It was important for me to learn how these lenses impact the retail proposition and how retailers position themselves. The next thing for me to learn about are the key metrics that play a role in retailers’ omni-channel approach to selling.

Fig. 1 – A graphic outline of “The consumer decision journey” by McKinsey & Company – Taken from: http://www.mckinsey.com/insights/marketing_sales/the_consumer_decision_journey

 

McKinsey

 

Fig. 2 – Example of Pret A Manger’s freshness proposition – Taken from: http://blog.kj.com/slow-fast-food/

Pret-A-Manger-Made-Today-Gone-Today

Fig. 3 –  Examples of Waitrose’s values with respect to product and operational capability

  • Product safety
  • Product provenance and integrity
  • Sustainable products
  • Local, regional and british sourcing

JohnLewis

Related links for further learning:

  1. http://tech.co/6-top-dynamics-creating-perfect-ecommerce-website-business-2014-11
  2. https://www.thinkwithgoogle.com/tools/customer-journey-to-online-purchase.html
  3. http://www.fitch.com/think-article/dreaming-exploring-locating-understanding-the-new-customer-journey/
  4. http://vonbismark.com/todays-multichannel-consumer/
  5. https://econsultancy.com/blog/65530-q-a-selfridges-simon-forster-on-the-brand-s-multichannel-retail-strategy
  6. http://futurethinking.ee.co.uk/from-funnels-to-loops-how-mobile-has-disrupted-the-consumer-purchase-cycle/
  7. http://dauofu.blogspot.co.uk/2013/01/multi-channel-analytics-why-every-web.html
  8. http://dauofu.blogspot.co.uk/2013/01/8-simplest-ways-to-track-multi-channel.html
  9. http://www.getelastic.com/omnichannel-vs-multichannel-and-the-store-of-the-future/
  10. http://www.forbes.com/sites/jasonbloomberg/2014/09/30/omnichannel-more-than-a-digital-transformation-buzzword/
  11. http://dauofu.blogspot.co.uk/2013/01/multi-channel-analytics-why-every-web.html
  12. http://www.mckinsey.com/insights/marketing_sales/the_consumer_decision_journey
  13. http://www.mca.org.uk/news/updates/omni-channel-in-2014-retail-at-a-crossroads
  14. https://www.udemy.com/blog/unique-selling-proposition-examples/
 
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Posted by on December 9, 2014 in Amazon, eCommerce, Measuring, Online Trends

 

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Product management at Amazon – What is it like?

Since reading the well known answer on Quora about Amazon’s approach to product development and product management by Ian McAllister I’ve been intrigued about Amazon and its product management function. In his Quora answer, McAllister – General Manager for AmazonSmile explains about Amazon’s approach called “working backwards”.
I guess most non-Amazon product people are familiar with the internal press releases that Amazon product people write to announce the finished product, even though in reality this product has yet to be built (see Fig. 1 below). Apart from following Amazon and its product releases, I’ve always wanted to find more about Amazon and its approach to product.
Later this week, I’ll be speaking to a senior Amazon figure to find out first hand about Amazon’s product culture and what it’s like to be a product person at Amazon. In preparation for this conversation, I’ll look at three aspects related to Amazon’s product function: (1) product culture (2) product methodologies and (3) structure and approach.

1. Product culture

  1. Leadership Principles –  It was interesting to read Amazon’s Leadership Principles, which are meant to guide every Amazon employee (see Fig. 2 below). The principles that resonated with me the most were “ownership”, “bias for action” and “vocally self critical”. In addition, from my experience of Amazon product managers, a lot of them seem to possess a great deal of intellectual curiosity and a strong desire to get every detail of the product (experience) 100% right.
  2. Founding principles – Each year, Amazon CEO Jeff Bezos writes a letter to his shareholders. In his first letter in 1997, Bezos outlined some of the fundamental principles which underpin Amazon’s decision making. These principals reflect a clear focus on long-term and analytical thinking as well as on the customer and their needs (see Fig. 3 below).
  3. Judgment based decisions – In the 2005 edition of Jeff Bezos’ annual shareholder letter, he writes about the importance of judgment (in combination with maths and data analysis) in making decisions: “As you would expect, however, not all of our important decisions can be made in this enviable, math-based way. Sometimes we have little or no historical data to guide us and proactive experimentation is impossible, impractical, or tantamount to a decision to proceed. Though data, analysis, and math play a role, the prime ingredient in these decisions is judgment”. I would file this view under the data informed approach to product decision making of which I’m a big fan.

2. Product methodologies

  1. Working backwards – As I mentioned above, Amazon is well known for its approach to “working backwards”. As Amazon’s CTO Werner Vogels explained in 2006, the main rationale for this approach is “to drive simplicity through a continuous, explicit customer focus” (see Fig. 4 below). Not only does this approach entail writing a press release but also a Frequently Asked Questions document, a well defined customer experience and a user manual. All four deliverables are in my view testament to Amazon’s customer centric focus. In a 2009 Newsweek interview, Jeff Bezos explained that it all starts with the customer: “We start with the customer and we work backward. We learn whatever skills we need to service the customer. We build whatever technology we need to service the customer.”
  2. Continuous learning – Amazon say that they release code every 11.6 seconds. That’s a great figure, especially considering some of the lengthy release cycles out there, even for Internet only companies. This approach of releasing early and often, facilitates what I’d call “continuous learning”. Amazon seems not afraid to launch and iterate product initiatives such as “Amazon Locker” (see Fig. 5 below) and Amazon Storyteller, and are quite ruthless in ditching a product or service if it’s doesn’t generate the desired results.
  3. Product documentation and roadmaps – As someone who isn’t the biggest fan of having to write endless product documentation, I was delighted to find out that the use PowerPoint has been banned at Amazon, with Jeff Bezos arguing that with PowerPoint “you get very little information, you get bullet points.  This is easy for the presenter, but difficult for the audience”. Instead, Amazon meetings are structured around a 2 to 6 page narrative memo (see Fig. 6 below). Also, part of the meeting is spent going through the narrative memo together, before discussing it. One of my questions for my contact is how this approach applies to the way in which in Amazon creates opportunity assessments or product roadmaps.
  4. Goal setting – I understand that Amazon follow a similar approach to Google when it comes to setting goals.  Google introduced “OKRs” (i.e. Objectives Key Results) a few years ago and I’ve found OKRs a great way to make business objectives very tangible and specific (see Fig. 7 and 8).

3. Structure and approach

  1. “Two pizza” teams – I really like how Amazon works with so-called “two pizza” teams. The reason why these teams are called “two pizza” teams is because teams should never have more people than you can feed with two pizzas. As a result, most teams consist of 6-10 people. As Amazon CTO Werner Vogels explained, “if you have more than ten people in your team, you’ll need to have meetings”. It’s not so much about the team size, but much more about the team’s “fitness function”. A fitness function is a single key business metric that the senior executive team at Amazon (the “S-team”) agrees on with the team lead. It’s the equivalent of the P&L for a division: a single metric to provide the team with focus and accountability. I like that this provides team with autonomy and accountability, having the remit to ‘just get on with things’.
  2. Continuous deployment – Given that Amazon release code every 11 seconds, I’d be keen to find out more about release management at at Amazon. I can imagine that they work in iterations and release code throughout. I like how Etsy go about releasing up to 35 times a day. Naturally, Etsy is a lot smaller by comparison with Amazon, but I can imagine that Amazon use a similar approach whereby they use “config” flags (also known as a feature flags) which enables companies to switch features on or off at a moment’s notice. Through its feature API, Etsy is able to do A/B testing, completely enable or disable a feature or variants of a given feature. Also, I can imagine Amazon having a super sophisticated and easy to access monitoring tool through which everyone in the company can keep abreast with any releases or system failures. It was reassuring to read that Amazon don’t have Product Development Managers, but instead allow their Product Managers to decide on what gets shipped and why.
  3. Idea generation and evaluation – How do product ideas get generated at Amazon? Do Amazon product people use methodologies such as design thinking and empathy mapping to identify and prioritise customer needs? If so, why and how? I understand from the aforementioned Ian McAllister that product ideas can come from lots of different perspectives in and outside of Amazon and I get the sense that being able to articulate a product idea and its underlying rationale is a critical requirement for a product person Amazon. It was interesting to read McAllister’s 16 tips for writing upwards in this respect (see Fig. 9 below).

Main learning point: It was interesting to learn more about Amazon’s approach to product management. I’m now looking forward to finding out more from someone who actually lives and breathes Amazon’s product and customer centric approach. These are some of the questions that I’ll ask:

  • How involved are Amazon’s product people in its continuous deployments? Do they get to release themselves?
  • With Amazon’s continuous deployment mindset, do Amazon product managers apply assumptions and measurable hypotheses to each (major) release?
  • How do product ideas get generated at Amazon? What is the role of the product manager in generating, assessing and deciding on product ideas?
  • When “working backwards”, how much of the artefacts of this phase are actually used by (target) Amazon customers? How much user input is gathered at this stage (by the product person) and why?
  • How often, where and when do Amazon’s product managers interact with actual customers and why?
  • How do Amazon product managers interact with “Customer Experience Bar Raisers” who are Amazon employees especially trained to represent the (target) customer?
  • How much autonomy do Amazon product managers have to make product decisions and be held accountable for them?

 

Fig. 1 – Ian McAllister’s answer to the question “What is Amazon’s approach to product development and product management? – Taken from: http://www.quora.com/What-is-Amazons-approach-to-product-development-and-product-management

For new initiatives a product manager typically starts by writing an internal press release announcing the finished product. The target audience for the press release is the new/updated product’s customers, which can be retail customers or internal users of a tool or technology. Internal press releases are centered around the customer problem, how current solutions (internal or external) fail, and how the new product will blow away existing solutions.

If the benefits listed don’t sound very interesting or exciting to customers, then perhaps they’re not (and shouldn’t be built). Instead, the product manager should keep iterating on the press release until they’ve come up with benefits that actually sound like benefits. Iterating on a press release is a lot less expensive than iterating on the product itself (and quicker!).

Here’s an example outline for the press release:

  • Heading – Name the product in a way the reader (i.e. your target customers) will understand.
  • Sub-Heading – Describe who the market for the product is and what benefit they get. One sentence only underneath the title.
  • Summary – Give a summary of the product and the benefit. Assume the reader will not read anything else so make this paragraph good.
  • Problem – Describe the problem your product solves.
  • Solution – Describe how your product elegantly solves the problem.
  • Quote from You – A quote from a spokesperson in your company.
  • How to Get Started – Describe how easy it is to get started.
  • Customer Quote – Provide a quote from a hypothetical customer that describes how they experienced the benefit.
  • Closing and Call to Action – Wrap it up and give pointers where the reader should go next.

If the press release is more than a page and a half, it is probably too long. Keep it simple. 3-4 sentences for most paragraphs. Cut out the fat. Don’t make it into a spec. You can accompany the press release with a FAQ that answers all of the other business or execution questions so the press release can stay focused on what the customer gets. My rule of thumb is that if the press release is hard to write, then the product is probably going to suck. Keep working at it until the outline for each paragraph flows.

Fig. 2 – Amazon’s Leadership Principles – Taken from: http://www.amazon.com/Values-Careers-Homepage/b?ie=UTF8&node=239365011

Whether you are an individual contributor or the manager of a large team, you are an Amazon leader. These are our leadership principles and every Amazonian is guided by these principles.

Customer Obsession
Leaders start with the customer and work backwards. They work vigorously to earn and keep customer trust. Although leaders pay attention to competitors, they obsess over customers.

Ownership
Leaders are owners. They think long term and don’t sacrifice long-term value for short-term results. They act on behalf of the entire company, beyond just their own team. They never say “that’s not my job.”

Invent and Simplify
Leaders expect and require innovation and invention from their teams and always find ways to simplify. They are externally aware, look for new ideas from everywhere, and are not limited by “not invented here.” As we do new things, we accept that we may be misunderstood for long periods of time.

Are Right, A Lot
Leaders are right a lot. They have strong business judgment and good instincts.

Hire and Develop the Best
Leaders raise the performance bar with every hire and promotion. They recognize exceptional talent, and willingly move them throughout the organization. Leaders develop leaders and take seriously their role in coaching others.

Insist on the Highest Standards
Leaders have relentlessly high standards – many people may think these standards are unreasonably high. Leaders are continually raising the bar and driving their teams to deliver high quality products, services and processes. Leaders ensure that defects do not get sent down the line and that problems are fixed so they stay fixed.

Think Big
Thinking small is a self-fulfilling prophecy. Leaders create and communicate a bold direction that inspires results. They think differently and look around corners for ways to serve customers.

Bias for Action
Speed matters in business. Many decisions and actions are reversible and do not need extensive study. We value calculated risk taking.

Frugality
We try not to spend money on things that don’t matter to customers. Frugality breeds resourcefulness, self-sufficiency, and invention. There are no extra points for headcount, budget size, or fixed expense.

Vocally Self Critical
Leaders do not believe their or their team’s body odor smells of perfume. Leaders come forward with problems or information, even when doing so is awkward or embarrassing. Leaders benchmark themselves and their teams against the best.

Earn Trust of Others
Leaders are sincerely open-minded, genuinely listen, and are willing to examine their strongest convictions with humility.

Dive Deep
Leaders operate at all levels, stay connected to the details, and audit frequently. No task is beneath them.

Have Backbone; Disagree and Commit
Leaders are obligated to respectfully challenge decisions when they disagree, even when doing so is uncomfortable or exhausting. Leaders have conviction and are tenacious. They do not compromise for the sake of social cohesion. Once a decision is determined, they commit wholly.

Deliver Results
Leaders focus on the key inputs for their business and deliver them with the right quality and in a timely fashion. Despite setbacks, they rise to the occasion and never settle.

Fig. 3 – Some of Amazon’s fundamental management and decision making principles, as outlined in Jeff Bezos’ shareholder letter in 1997 – Taken from: http://www.sec.gov/Archives/edgar/data/1018724/000119312514137753/d702518dex991.htm

Because of our emphasis on the long term, we may make decisions and weigh tradeoffs differently than some companies. Accordingly, we want to share with you our fundamental management and decision-making approach so that you, our shareholders, may confirm that it is consistent with your investment philosophy:

  • We will continue to focus relentlessly on our customers.
  • We will continue to make investment decisions in light of long term market leadership considerations rather than short term profitability considerations or short term Wall Street reactions.
  • We will continue to measure our programs and the effectiveness of our investments analytically, to jettison those that do not provide acceptable returns, and to step up our investments in those that work best. We will continue to learn from both our successes and failures.
  • We will work hard to spend wisely and to maintain our lean culture. We understand the importance of continually reinforcing a cost-conscious culture, particularly in a business incurring net losses.

Fig. 4 – Four typical steps in Amazon’s approach of “working backwards” – Taken from: http://www.allthingsdistributed.com/2006/11/working_backwards.html

The Working Backwards product definition process is all about is fleshing out the concept and achieving clarity of thought about what we will ultimately go off and build. It typically has four steps:

  1. Start by writing the Press Release. Nail it. The press release describes in a simple way what the product does and why it exists – what are the features and benefits. It needs to be very clear and to the point. Writing a press release up front clarifies how the world will see the product – not just how we think about it internally.
  2. Write a Frequently Asked Questions document. Here’s where we add meat to the skeleton provided by the press release. It includes questions that came up when we wrote the press release. You would include questions that other folks asked when you shared the press release and you include questions that define what the product is good for. You put yourself in the shoes of someone using the product and consider all the questions you would have.
  3. Define the customer experience. Describe in precise detail the customer experience for the different things a customer might do with the product. For products with a user interface, we would build mock ups of each screen that the customer uses. For web services, we write use cases, including code snippets, which describe ways you can imagine people using the product. The goal here is to tell stories of how a customer is solving their problems using the product.
  4. Write the User Manual. The user manual is what a customer will use to really find out about what the product is and how they will use it. The user manual typically has three sections, concepts, how-to, and reference, which between them tell the customer everything they need to know to use the product. For products with more than one kind of user, we write more than one user manual.

Fig. 5 – Amazon Locker – Taken from: http://s0uls.wordpress.com/2013/03/28/amazon-lockers/

img_20130311_235727

Fig. 6 – Main components of Amazon’s 2 or 6 page meeting narratives – Taken from: http://www.quora.com/How-are-the-six-page-narratives-structured-in-Jeff-Bezos-S-Team-meetings

  1. The context or question
  2. Approaches to answer the question – by whom, by which method, and their conclusions
  3. How is your attempt at answering the question different or the same from previous approaches
  4. Now what? – that is, what’s in it for the customer, the company, and how does the answer to the question enable innovation on behalf of the customer?

Fig. 7 – An example of Google’s OKRs, by John Doerr – Taken from: http://www.businessinsider.com/googles-ranking-system-okr-2014-1

okr-deck

 

okr-1

okr-goals

Fig. 8 – Key elements of Google’s OKRs by Rick Klau – Taken from: http://www.gv.com/lib/how-google-sets-goals-objectives-and-key-results-okrs

  • Objectives are ambitious, and should feel somewhat uncomfortable
  • Key Results are measurable; they should be easy to grade with a number (at Google we use a 0 – 1.0 scale to grade each key result at the end of a quarter)
  • OKRs are public; everyone in the company should be able to see what everyone else is working on (and how they did in the past)
  • The “sweet spot” for an OKR grade is .6 – .7; if someone consistently gets 1.0, their OKRs aren’t ambitious enough. Low grades shouldn’t be punished; see them as data to help refine the next quarter’s OKRs.

Fig. 9 – Ian McAllister’s tips for “writing upwards” – Taken from: http://ianmcall.blogspot.co.uk/2010/04/16-tips-for-writing-upwards.html

1. Identify Your Audience
A good doc has a specific audience in mind. The same doc will never be ideal for audiences up, across, down or out. Once you’ve identified the audience, many of the choices you’ll make while writing the doc (e.g. altitude) will be much easier to make. In this post I focus on docs written to be circulated upwards.

2. Identify the Document’s Goal
Documents should have a goal in mind. The goal could be to communicate an operational plan for the year, provide a status update, seek approval for a specific course of action, or explain the root cause and steps to prevent reoccurrence of a problem. Once you know your audience (but not before), and the goal the document is intended to achieve, you’re ready to move on. If you’re unclear on either then punt on the doc or clarify the audience and doc’s goal with whoever asked you to write it.

3. Find Some Good Examples
Hunt around for other similar documents and pore through them. You may find some on your company’s Intranet and you can ask around among peers for good examples they’ve written or come across. I guarantee you, if you read 10 docs you’ll come away with a sense for which were effective and what you can learn (i.e. copy) from them. This is not cheating. Be aware that if you’re writing for a particular exec or group that the format they favor might be different than the format favored by others. Find this out ahead of time if you can.

4. One Doc, One Author
Co-authoring a doc is painful, and the Frankendocs that result are usually painful to read as well. Collaborate on the outline, perhaps, but either write it yourself or have your prospective co-author write it. Don’t tag-team.

5. Add an Executive Summary
Boil the entire doc down into a few bullets or a paragraph. Spill it. Your temptation will be to save the good stuff for the end of the doc to build suspense or get your excuses in ahead of time. Resist! If you are emailing your doc to a group of people many won’t read the whole thing. The exec summary communicates the highlights, which is all some of the audience needs to know. For those that will read the whole doc the executive summary lays out the structure of the doc and answers key questions that might otherwise have clouded comprehension.

6. Take Time on the Outline
Just like it is quicker to fix a software bug during unit testing than in production, it is much more efficient to iterate of the outline of a document than to rework a fully written doc. I often ask my newer product managers to review the outline of a doc with me and incorporate any structural feedback I have before going on to write the full doc. Sometimes I even provide them a rough outline of what I’m looking to get from a doc to help get them started. Simple bullets are ideal. I don’t want sentences or mini-paragraphs.

The outline should tell a story from top to bottom, and it shouldn’t be flat. An outline with 16 sections at the same level isn’t an outline, it’s a list. If you find yourself with more than 5-6 sub-sections underneath any one heading consider grouping them. This gives the reader a framework to attach the information to, and helps them understand what to make of it. You’ll know you’re getting really good at outlines when you can go from the outline to the full doc by replacing each bullet in the outline with a couple sentences.

7. Add Themes for Structure
Themes are a great way to provide structure for a doc. If you’re laying out an operational plan for the year you might want to communicate 2-3 themes for the year, why different themes will be focus areas in different parts of the year, and how resources are going to be allocated between the themes. Themes take a doc from the 100,000 foot view to the 10,000 view. If you skip them, then you risk losing your audience between the high-level content and the tactical content; they don’t know how they got there.

8. Anticipate Key Questions in the Main Content
As you write the individual sections, take the reader from the 10,000 foot view to the 1,000 foot view. Start with the minimum amount of content necessary to achieve your goal. Use plain words and declarative (not flowery) language.

Related links for further learning:

  1. http://www.smartinsights.com/digital-marketing-strategy/online-business-revenue-models/amazon-case-study/
  2. https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/article/20130805231302-25760-stop-the-presses-a-new-press-lord-appears
  3. http://daslee.me/reading-jeff-bezos
  4. http://www.sec.gov/Archives/edgar/data/1018724/000119312514137753/d702518dex991.htm
  5. http://www.businessinsider.com/jeff-bezos-told-you-how-to-take-over-the-world-2011-11?IR=T
  6. http://www.allthingsdistributed.com/2006/11/working_backwards.html
  7. http://www.quora.com/What-specific-constraints-does-Amazon-put-on-working-backwards-in-particular-on-length-content-and-other-of-the-press-release-Q-A-customer-experience-and-user-manual-as-part-of-working-backwards-for-product-development
  8. http://www.glassdoor.co.uk/Interview/Amazon-com-Senior-Product-Manager-Interview-Questions-EI_IE6036.0,10_KO11,33.htm
  9. http://brendansterne.com/2013/11/21/amazon-product-management-working-backwards/
  10. http://bits.blogs.nytimes.com/2009/12/24/is-amazon-working-backwards/?_r=0
  11. http://www.slideshare.net/nik123hil/brand-management-study-of-amazon
  12. http://www.wired.com/2012/04/ff_abtesting/
  13. https://news.ycombinator.com/item?id=2971521
  14. http://www.forbes.com/sites/netapp/2013/12/05/fail-experiment-amazon-starbucks/
  15. http://conorneill.com/2012/11/30/amazon-staff-meetings-no-powerpoint/
  16. http://www.reddit.com/r/technology/comments/1ebavs/amazon_staff_meetings_no_powerpoint/
  17. http://research.gigaom.com/2013/10/flipped-meetings/
  18. http://www.quora.com/How-are-the-six-page-narratives-structured-in-Jeff-Bezos-S-Team-meetings
  19. http://www.businessinsider.com/googles-ranking-system-okr-2014-1
  20. https://www.thinkwithgoogle.com/articles/start-up-speed-kristen-gil.html
  21. http://www.workboard.com/blog/use-okrs-to-achieve-bold-goals.php
  22. http://neilperkin.typepad.com/only_dead_fish/2011/10/two-pizza-teams.html
  23. http://blog.jasoncrawford.org/two-pizza-teams
  24. http://dev.podcasts.com/agile_nyc/episode/episode-78-stephen-hardisty-engineering-manager-at-etsy
  25. https://codeascraft.com/2011/02/04/how-does-etsy-manage-development-and-operations/
  26. http://www.infoq.com/presentations/etsy-release-cycle
  27. http://www.infoq.com/news/2014/03/etsy-deploy-50-times-a-day
  28. http://www.quora.com/What-value-is-having-product-management-experience-from-Amazon
  29. http://www.quora.com/How-can-I-get-over-my-failed-interview-at-Amazon
  30. http://www.quora.com/How-should-I-prepare-for-a-Technical-Program-Manager-interview-at-Amazon
  31. http://www.forbes.com/sites/georgeanders/2012/04/04/bezos-tips/
  32. https://socialsteve.wordpress.com/tag/jeff-bezos/
 
 

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Twitch and its appeal for Google and Microsoft

The other day, I heard about the rumoured takeover of Twitch by Google for the handsome amount of $1 billion. I have to be honest; up until that point I had never heard about Twitch. Reason enough to look into Twitch and a possible ratio for Google willing to spend such a large amount of cash on this startup:

  1. What is Twitch? – Twitch is a video streaming platform and a community for gamers. Geekwire describes Twitch as “the ESPN of the video game industry” and says Twitch is a leader in that space. Twitch has over 45 million monthly users and about 1 million members who upload videos each month. In a relatively short space of time (Twitch was launched in June 2011), Twitch has successfully created an online streaming platform for video games.
  2. Who use Twitch? – I’m not an avid video gamer myself, but browsing the Twitch website tells me that are in effect two main user roles, which are closely intertwined: game players and broadcasters. Clearly, you can be both and I’m sure that a lot of Twitch members fulfil both roles. One can play games on Twitch channels like Counter-Strike: Global Offensive or World of Tanks or one can create their own pages from which you can broadcast games. A great example of Twitch’s success in engaging its community around a game is TwitchPlaysPokemon which has had over 78,000 people playing a game that turns chat comments into controller inputs, parsing hundreds of thousands of ups, downs, and starts and translating them into in-game movements.
  3. Why is Twitch such an interesting acquisition target? – Twitch is reported to have snubbed Microsoft’s takeover offer but is rumoured to have fallen for Google. This raises the question as to what makes Twitch such an interesting takeover target? I think that the answer can be split into two main factors. Firstly, scale. Twitch has a rapidly growing and very engaged user community who all share a passion for (video) gaming. Secondly, live broadcasting. Going back to the example of TwitchPlaysPokemon, Twitch streams games that get people excited and gets them participating in real-time. This simultaneous element is something that for instance YouTube is lacking. YouTube is great for on-demand video content, but (currently) less so for live event coverage or participation. The combination of both factors (as well as a very rich vein of user generated content and data) makes Twitch an extremely interesting target indeed.

Main learning point: Recently there have been some major takeover deals in the digital industry – think Instagram, WhatsApp and Beats – but the rumoured acquisition of Twitch by Google is interesting for a number of reasons. If I have to highlight one key reason, then synergy is the main aspect that makes this potential takeover sound like a very exciting one. How will Google potentially integrate YouTube and Twitch or at least find a way to combine both platforms? Will the acquisition of Twitch help YouTube in cracking the real-time broadcast element of its offering? Lets wait and see if the deal actually gets done in the first place, but if it does then I will definitely keep an eye out for any future developments involving Google, YouTube and Twitch.

Related links for further learning:

  1. http://www.fool.com/investing/general/2014/05/28/why-youtube-buying-twitch-for-1-billion.aspx
  2. http://www.geekwire.com/2014/microsofts-xbox-shot-potential-twitch-buyer-matters/
  3. http://variety.com/2014/digital/news/youtube-to-acquire-videogame-streaming-service-twitch-for-1-billion-sources-1201185204/
  4. http://techcrunch.com/2014/05/27/tc-cribs-tours-twitch-tv-gaming-office-headquarters/
  5. http://thenextweb.com/insider/2014/05/29/twitch-now-lets-filter-counter-strike-global-offensive-game-streams-map-skill-level/
  6. http://thenextweb.com/google/2014/05/19/google-reportedly-wants-buy-video-streaming-service-twitch-1b-deal-boost-youtube/
  7. http://variety.com/2014/digital/news/why-google-wants-to-hitch-twitch-and-youtube-1201188093/
  8. http://www.theverge.com/2014/5/20/5734108/why-twitch-could-be-the-best-billion-google-ever-spends
  9. http://guardianlv.com/2014/02/twitch-live-broadcast-to-be-included-in-xbox-one/

Twitch

 

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What to expect from Amazon’s anticipatory shipping patent?

Earlier this year Amazon patented its “anticipatory shipping” solution, which basically comes down to Amazon shipping products even before customers have ordered them. Amazon will use an algorithm to pre-determine things that people want to buy, based on a mix of data including previous purchases, questionnaires, wish lists, browsing data, demographic data, etc.

Even though this “anticipatory shipping” concept is in its early stages, these are the more interesting aspects worth looking into:

  1. Anticipating demand – This algorithm will help Amazon to anticipate demand and, critically, the location where that demand is most likely to arise. Predicting user demand is the holy grail for most eCommerce or content businesses and Amazon is no exception. Amazon is looking to utilise its treasure chest of customer data – behavioural and demographic – to the fullest.
  2. Impact on distribution – It all depends on how exactly Amazon will implement its patent, but one can imagine that their whole distribution and supply chain system will alter dramatically. For example, the patent includes an outline of “speculatively shipping” packages to destinations and how to re-route items based on proximity to potential customers for those items. One of the diagrams included in the patent (see Fig.1 below) gives a clear indication of what such a scenario could look like. As a result, goods might stop being stored in huge warehouses but instead be continuously on the move in trucks.
  3. Improving Amazon’s recommendations even further – Similar to the point I raised about anticipating demand (see point 1. above), it will be interesting to see how Amazon will further improve its algorithms to predict customer demand accurately. Amazon is already doing a pretty good job at figuring out user profiles (Darius Kazemi’s “Random Shopper” provides a good case in point) and providing content-based recommendations, i.e. looking at similar products that you have purchased previously. In order to get anticipatory shopping right, Amazon will base its predictions on additional data such as product searches, wish lists, shopping-cart contents, returns and more random aspects such as how long a user’s cursor has hovered over a specific item.

Main learning point: Anticipatory shipping sounds a bit futuristic, but its underlying rationale and benefit is clear to see. What intrigues me most is to see how the customer will benefit from a predictive, as-and-when delivery approach. One of the key factors in this equation is the quality and accuracy of Amazon’s predictions. I guess that’s the thing I will be most interested; how will Amazon accurately predict what I need, where and when?

Fig. 1 – “Speculatively shipping” by Amazon (taken from: US Patent 24 December 2013 No. 8,615,473 B2)

 

Amazon anticipatory shipping

 

Related links for further learning:

  1. http://www.forbes.com/sites/onmarketing/2014/01/28/why-amazons-anticipatory-shipping-is-pure-genius/
  2. http://randomshopper.tumblr.com/post/35454415921/randomized-consumerism
  3. http://www.forbes.com/sites/stevebanker/2014/01/24/amazon-and-anticipatory-shipping-a-dubious-patent/
  4. http://techcrunch.com/2014/01/18/amazon-pre-ships/
  5. http://www.theverge.com/2014/1/18/5320636/amazon-plans-to-ship-your-packages-before-you-even-buy-them
  6. http://blogs.wsj.com/digits/2014/01/17/amazon-wants-to-ship-your-package-before-you-buy-it/
 

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How supermarkets are becoming entertainment platforms

Over the past year or so supermarket giants such as Sainsbury’s and Tesco have started venturing into entertainment content. A good example is supermarket giant Tesco which acquired We7 (digital music) and Blinkbox (video on demand) last year. Its UK competitor Sainsbury bought online entertainment platform Global Media Vault and Anobii (eBooks) around the same time.

I wondered about the business rationale and aspirations that underpin these deals. Do supermarkets want to bolster their physical presence with an equally comprehensive digital offering? Are Tesco and Sainsbury’s looking to take on global content providers such as Amazon, iTunes and Netflix? What’s in it for these supermarkets?

For the purpose of this blog post I’ll focus primarily on video streaming, outlining the key characteristics of this offering and user demands. Let’s start by looking into some of the relevant factors with regard to building a digital video platform:

  1. What does the user want? – From my market research and conversations with consumers, I believe that users are primarily interested in quality content which is easy to access, engaging and – ideally – free. They want to watch TV shows or films across a wide range of devices, with the the experience being as ‘seamless’ as possible. “It just needs to work” is a sentiment that I’ve heard echoed by numerous people, meaning that they don’t have much time for technical glitches, issues when watching content offline or on multiple devices. The average video on-demand customer wants to be in full control of what they watch, when and where. Also the breadth of the catalogue is just as critical a factor; the sooner a service can offer the latest, popular TV shows or movies the better. An interesting development in this respect is Netflix creating its own “House of Cards” series and offering this exclusively to its subscribers. 
  2. What does the business want? (1) – Revenue. User data. Cross-selling. Forgive me for the crude breakdown of these high-level objectives, no doubt the detail behind their business models is probably more refined than that. I’ve tried to break this down a bit more in Fig. 1 below. For a platform like Tesco’s Clubcard TV (powered by Blinkbox) the main revenue source is likely to be advertising. However, just as important is the value the supermarket colossus derives from offering their users an additional, free service and the ability to learn more about their entertainment preferences. Understanding those preferences better will no doubt help in recommending users other content or entertainment related products. I’ve outlined some relevant metrics to determine the customer value in Fig. 2 and 3 below.
  3. What does the business want? (2) – Engaged customers, brand advocates. Perhaps less easy to quantify but not an insignificant factor in this context. It’s much easier to go to another supermarket if they offer the same packet of crisps at a cheaper price. However, if a supermarket offers their loyal customers great free content, you might think twice before switching your ‘allegiance’. There’s still some debate about how successful Netflix’ House of Cards series has been so far in terms of views and subscription increases, but there’s no denying that the programme got people talking and engaged.

Main learning point: previously I had looked at the business models for video on demand providers such as Lovefilm and Netflix. Their subscription based models were relatively easy to work out. With a supermarket chain like Tesco offering free content to its loyal customers, the proposition gets very interesting. It seems like a very effective way to engage with customers, offering them free but compelling content. Similar to the paid versions of on-demand video, I believe that a free content offering will have a bigger chance of success if it provides great content and if it’s easy to access across a range of devices.

Fig. 1 – Breakdown of key players in the video streaming space and their business models

A. Subscription model / Pay-as-you-go

Key players: Netflix, Amazon (Lovefilm/Amazon Instant Video), Apple, Blinkbox and Walmart (Vudu – US)

Key value proposition: Offering quality content and a great – cross-platform – user experience

Business model: Either a monthly subscription fee or pay-as-you-go rental

B. Advertising

Key players: YouTube. BBC iPlayer, Channel 4 VOD, Hulu (US), Tesco Clubcard TV, WatchFreeMovies and Zmovie

Key value proposition: Offering quality content for free and a seamless – cross-platform – user experience

Business model: Free access, no fees required. Use free-access model to attract users to other (premium) content services. Advertising as a main revenue source.

Fig. 2 – Four ways visitors of media sites can generate value (adapted from “Lean Analytics” by Alistair Croll and Ben Yoskovitz, p. 121)

  • Subscriptions – Measure subscription rate to monitor subscription revenue
  • On-site engagement – You can look at a number of engagement metrics (e.g. time since last visit, time per visit, visits per day, pages per visit and time on page)
  • Ad-revenue – Generate revenue through display ads (number of impressions x cost per impression = Cost Per Engagement), affiliate links (affiliate % x sales volume = Affiliate Revenue), sponsorship (e.g. monthly sponsorship rates and number of sponsored banners) and Pay Per Click (Click-through rate x Ad price = Pay Per Click revenue)
  • Sharing –  Generate value through sharing content (e.g. through on-site tools and off-site)

Fig. 3 – Key metrics that media sites are likely to care about (adapted from “Lean Analytics” by Alistair Croll and Ben Yoskovitz, p. 117)

  • Audience and churn  Understanding how many (paid) users you’re adding and losing. For services like Netflix and Blinkbox ‘user loyalty’ is a critical aspect
  • Ad rates or Cost per engagement –  How much money can a service make from impressions based on the content it covers and the people who use the service
  • Ad inventory – The number of impressions that can be monetized
  • Click-through rates – How many of the impressions actually turn into money
  • Content/advertising balance – The balance of ad inventory rates and content that maximizes overall performance

clubcard_tv_contentfullwidth

Related links for further learning:

  1. http://www.walmart.com/cp/vudu/1066144
  2. http://www.walmart.com/cp/Video-On-Demand-by-VUDU/1084447
  3. http://www.vudu.com/
  4. http://crave.cnet.co.uk/homecinema/tescos-free-clubcard-tv-service-has-some-right-old-tosh-50010826/
  5. http://blog.laptopmag.com/walmart-launches-vudu-video-on-demand-service
  6. http://money.cnn.com/2011/07/26/news/companies/walmart_vudu_online_movie_service/index.htm
  7. http://techcrunch.com/2013/01/07/walmart-vudu-disc-to-digital/
  8. http://techcrunch.com/2011/07/26/walmart-vudu-movie-streaming/
  9. http://www.fool.com/investing/general/2013/05/15/can-netflix-out-stream-the-competition.aspx
  10. http://appadvice.com/appnn/2013/05/when-it-comes-to-streaming-video-netflix-and-youtube-continue-to-lead
  11. http://www.allmyfaves.com/blog/movies/watch-movies-online-top-10-film-streaming-review-sites/
  12. http://voyager8.blogspot.co.uk/2010/02/what-are-cpm-cpc-cpa-cpe-etc-in-online.html
  13. http://thenextweb.com/uk/2013/04/03/tesco-brings-bbc-worldwide-content-to-its-blinkbox-powered-video-streaming-service-clubcard-tv/
  14. http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p01b1hyh
  15. http://www.pocket-lint.com/news/121318-tesco-clubcard-tv-adds-itv-dramas-and-cooking-shows-to-free-streaming-service
 

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